This study evaluated the benefits of using vitamin D and K2 concordant to improve insulin sensitivity and vascular thickness in diabetic subjects. This assessment further reinforced that vitamin K2 can be used in isolation to treat many pathologies and, when used in conjunction with vitamin D, can reverse calcification. Yi-Chou Hou et al. investigated the synergistic effect of vitamins D and K on the physiological pathway of arteriosclerosis in CKD. First, the review acknowledges that phosphorylated MGP inhibits the calcification of blood vessels by direct binding to calcium and BMP-2. This prevents VSMCs from distinguishing themselves into osteoblasts, preventing apoptosis. In addition, the administration of vitamin K2 caused a decrease in the level of ucOC, promoting bone mineralization.
An important enzyme that regulates bone mineralization, alkaline phosphatase, was found to have increased activity when warfarin was administered to rats. Once warfarin was stopped, ALP levels continued to rise until vitamin K2 was included in the rats’ diet. This provides insight into the different mechanisms that make up the calcified plaques found in the aorta of rats; future research on how ALP is activated outside the bone matrix would be useful. In 2005, Sakamoto et al.dat vitamin K2 possesses properties that prevent osteoporosis, leading to research into the physiological process responsible for this attribute. This animal study examined the mechanism that allows menaquinone to act as a replacement antioxidant for estrogen, comparing older female rats with younger ones. The results contradicted the hypothesis, as there was no significant increase in serum antioxidant levels.
MGP was also examined in this study and, unlike the OP result, mgP mRNA was found in numerous cells, such as vascular smooth muscle cells of the medial and intimate vascular layers, macrophages and endothelial cells. This suggests that MGP is a major contributor to vascular calcification and fibrosis that can lead to CVD disease in its non-carbonylated form. Osteoporosis is one of those metabolic bone diseases in which bones weaken and have an increased risk of fractures. Worldwide, 1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men over the age of 50 are expected to experience an osteoporotic fracture.
While this research has been conducted to examine the use of vitamin K2 in maintaining bone health, there have been more studies in recent years that have examined its other functions. Previous research, such as a study by Shanahan et al. examined the expression of genes that code for the proteins involved in this process. Osteopontin is one of those glycoproteins in bone, where it helps in the adhesion of osteoclasts to the natural vitamin k2 bone matrix during bone resorption, regulates apoptosis and sends signals to cells to sites of inflammation. During this prospective cohort study in the coronary artery sections of healthy subjects, there was no presence of mRNA for OP. This is in contrast to the other 13 of the 18 samples with high levels of OP mRNA, although this was only in the parts of the sections where a select number of macrophages expressed the gene.
In 2001, Kaneki et al. conducted a cross-sectional study to compare serum vitamin K2 levels in Asian and European women. The presence of natto in the diet of the Japanese population was responsible for a marked increase in serum MK-7 levels. As a result, the increased serum vitamin K2 level was maintained longer than a single oral dose of MK-4 after a 24-hour period. This may be partly due to the presence of fermenting bacteria in the gut, which, combined with the intake of MK-7, resulted in an increase in serum vitamin K2. This study found that postmenopausal Japanese women had a reduced risk of osteoporotic fractures compared to the aforementioned regions. A Spearman range coefficient of -0.321 was shown in assessing the incidence of hip fractures against family expenditure of natto.
Soft, flexible blood vessels ensure healthy circulation, reducing the risk of harmful blood clots and heart disease. Both vitamin K1 and K2 ensure healthy blood clotting and prevent excessive bleeding and bruising when blood vessels are injured. But recent research suggests that they play different roles in other aspects of our health, with vitamin K2 adding health benefits independent of K1.
We also describe dietary sources, health benefits, recommended daily intake, deficiency symptoms, and supplements. Vitamin K2 has now established a compelling platform within the scientific community as a compound that expresses beneficial properties that can be used in the medical field. Currently, the mainstay of the study has focused on its effects on bone metabolism, as it was initially where the Japanese research began. There have been many studies that have concluded a significant increase in serum AAC levels in osteoporotic subjects. Jiang et al. wanted to provide more evidence of the importance of maintaining high serum vitamin K2 levels in 2016. The aortas of the Sprague Dawley rats were examined, which were grouped by doses of warfarin treatment and fed the same diet for weeks.